Electric-vehicle Batteries are Like Olives…
Dec19

Electric-vehicle Batteries are Like Olives…

Sometimes  while I'm reading a standard press release about something that I thought I understood kind of,  I come across a bit of a gap in my knowledge. This week, Nissan says it has opened its lithium ion battery manufacturing plant in Tennessee. The release states, "The first batteries produced at the plant have completed the required aging process and are now ready to receive their first charge." Um... what the what? Do these things need to be put on a shelf and cured like olives? Nissan helpfully includes a really nice graphic describing the manufacturing process, most of which does sound familar to me. In the fourth flow-chart box, after the electrolyte is injected with what looks like a hypodermic needle, the text explains "Cells are aged to allow the cell chemistry to be properly formed."  Then they go on to be tested, trimmed to size and charged. If you are a battery geek, I'd love to hear your idea of what the chemistry formation is and what it does for the battery. My only guess is that the pause is needed for the formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode - or negative electrode. This layer is formed with the help of the electrolyte (and there are SEI additives for electrolytes to make the process better). It protects the surface of the anode from the degrading environment of the battery when it is recharged. The SEI layer may be composed of various stuff, depending on the particular materials used in the battery but are commonly Li2CO3, LiOH, LiF, or Li2O. Nissan explains its battery manufacturing process:...

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Fulcrum Promises 75 Cent Ethanol
Dec04

Fulcrum Promises 75 Cent Ethanol

With plans for advanced biofuels facilities appearing - and disappearing - with some frequency, it can be difficult to evaluate the exciting claims made by companies that analysts kindly refer to as "pre-revenue." Here's one such claim: Fulcrum's engineering and technology teams have recently made numerous enhancements to the design of Sierra [CC note: this is a first commercial facility] and to its proprietary MSW [municipal solid waste] to ethanol process. The Company expects these improvements will dramatically reduce its cost to produce renewable fuel to less than $0.75 per gallon at Sierra, down from approximately $1.25 per gallon as previously disclosed. The cost of production at future Fulcrum plants is now expected to be less than $0.50 per gallon, down from $0.70 per gallon as previously disclosed. Now, 75-cent ethanol is very cheap. Corn ethanol prices are usually about $2 per gal and thus it costs somewhat less than that to make (or not - many facilities are idle as corn costs are high). Chemtex - an engineering firm based in Italy - is now turning on its cellulosic plant in Cresentino. It plans to make ethanol for $1.50 per gal from 10 cent per lb cellulosic sugar. Fulcrum plans to make ethanol at its plant near Reno, Nevada from municipal solid waste. Its feed costs are known - it will get free trash from waste handling partners including Waste Management. C&EN recently reported on Waste Management's involvement in this space. The process is: sort waste, shred waste, gasify it, catalyze it to make ethanol, and separate/purify the ethanol. If the feedstock cost is the same as before, we can speculate on which part(s) of the process has been optimized to take 50 cents off the original cost estimate. The new cost estimates may also just be something the firm has put out to distract from other thoughts/questions about the process and business model. For one, Fulcrum says it has withdrawn its IPO filing. It will proceed with its first plant using project financing (including a $105 million USDA loan guarantee). The other questions are - will the plant actually be built, and will it produce ethanol at all? These are the kinds of questions facing all the players in the advanced biofuels industry. And as for the promise of 75-cent or cheaper ethanol - industry watcher Erik Hoover of Cleantechdata responds "More cautious language would help...

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Giant Gobs of Algae Coming From Solazyme
Nov16

Giant Gobs of Algae Coming From Solazyme

Starting soon, oil-producing algae will be replicating at B-horror-movie quantities. Imagine a lab coat-wearing scientist running into the street shouting "300,000 metric tons!" while scores of screaming people run by, pursued by a giant wave of green slime. But be not worried, the algae in question will be safely confined to fermentation tanks thanks their overlords at Solazyme. And many of those tanks will be in Brazil (so the people would be screaming in Portuguese, I guess.) Earlier this week, Solazyme says that it has agreed with its sugar-producing partner Bunge to increase the production capacity for algal oils from an original 100,000 metric ton amount to 300,000 metric tons. It seems from the press release that Bunge will have a hand in marketing the tailored oils to the edible oil market in Brazil. If you happen to live in the U.S. and have a craving for oil derived from algae, you'll be pleased to learn that another large blob will be coming to Clinton, Iowa, starting in early 2014. Solazyme and its little green workers plan to ooze into the idle Archer Daniels Midland plant formerly occupied by Metabolix's bioplastics operation. The plant will start out making 20,000 metric tons, but aims to grow to 100,000 metric tons....

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Moving to Missoula: Rivertop’s new CEO
Oct31

Moving to Missoula: Rivertop’s new CEO

The cleantech industry is taking executives to some interesting places lately. Earlier this month, renewable chemicals firm Rivertop Renewables, based in Missoula, Mont., named Michael J. Knauf as Chief Executive Officer. Mike Knauf is a 30-year veteran of the bioindustrial industry, having held executive level positions with Genencor and Codexis. Rivertop makes chemical intermediates through oxidation of sugar feedstocks. Its first platform of products is based on glucaric acid. On Oct. 26, the company opened its new labs and semi-works facility in Missoula. Cleantech Chemistry spoke with Knauf about his new job, and Rivertop’s future plans. CC: What attracted you to Rivertop? MJK: Rivertop is a startup with a promising future. Codexis had moved past start-up mode and was starting to form up as a company with products and services and a revenue line. This is a pre-revenue opportunity –  it builds on a solid breakthrough technology and was built by a great group of people. It couldn’t be a better opportunity for someone like me - a seasoned – in Montana they might say, grizzled, veteran. It’s really a great fit. I’m hoping my skill set will be what this company needs to propel it forward beyond startup phase. My mantra is always listen to your customer. We’re are in the process of developing our market strategy – we’ve been talking to customers to really understand their needs. This company’s technology was originally applied to a market pull; a company was looking for a unique polymer and our founder identified glucaric acid polymers to meet their need.  Our  platform product is glucaric acid and other sugar acids generally broaden the range of applications for the company. The fact that Rivertop was founded on a market need is the key. CC: What was it like to move to Missoula from San Francisco? MJK: It’s funny – on a personal note I grew up in a town almost exactly the same size as Missoula. You’ve heard of it – Green Bay Wisconsin, but now Green Bay is maybe three times the size of Missoula today. My wife and I grew up in the same town.  We’re so excited to be part of this community. It has a great quality of life and lots of nature. The University of Montana is in Missoula and provides a tremendous amount of cultural richness you wouldn’t find in towns this size everywhere. It’s just plain beautiful. And no, we’re not worried about winter. And the home we’ve purchased – well, there’s no stoplight between our home and the Rivertop offices and labs. When you’re from the Bay Area… that puts a big smile on...

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A123 Systems Files Chapter 11, Johnson Controls to Buy Assets
Oct16

A123 Systems Files Chapter 11, Johnson Controls to Buy Assets

It looks like it's pretty much all over for A123 Systems. The advanced battery company announced today that it would file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in order to reorganize its debts. Johnson Controls, which also makes large-format lithium ion batteries for the auto industry, will purchase facilities and other assets for $125 million. A123 was earlier mulling an offer to sell itself to Chinese auto part maker Wanxiang Group. A123 was one of a host of battery, battery materials, and electric drivetrain companies to receive government money as part of the Recovery Act. The goal was to set up a full manufacturing supply chain to for U.S.-made advanced batteries. Those batteries were intended to go into U.S.-made electric vehicles. A123 received $249 million in government grants. It also has shareholders, who will likely lose their investment in the re-org. Overall, Recovery Act funding for the advanced battery industry totalled $2 billion. A123 Systems stood out - and was most vulnerable to market forces - because it was a tech-driven, pure-play battery company. Unlike Dow Kokam, or Johnson Controls, it has no deep pocketed parent or additional technologies and markets to sell into. (A123 will license back techology for batteries used for stationary storage). And the market A123 sells into is the hyper-oversupplied market for electric car batteries. As we've mentioned recently in this blog, electric cars are selling very, very slowly. A recent article in MIT's Technology Review says battery production capacity in 2013 will greatly outpace demand with 3,900 MW hours of capacity to serve 330 MW of demand, based on estimates from Menahem Anderman at the consulting firm Advanced Automotive Batteries. Needless to say, many production lines are sitting idle at the moment. When A123 was still a young firm, it was selling batteries for power tools to Black & Decker. Indeed, when it went public its S1 filing was based on that partnership. The company certainly had its sights set on what was to be a huge automotive market. But one has to wonder, what would have happened if A123 hadn't received the "free" money? What if it hadn't been swept into the government's big plans to create a new advanced manufacturing industry from...

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LanzaTech: Now experimenting with CO2
Oct15

LanzaTech: Now experimenting with CO2

It's not too often that I get a press release with a New Zealand embargo time. Waste gas to fuels and chemicals firm LanzaTech got its start in New Zealand, but is currently headquartered in Illinois. Still, the company's larger projects are all in Asia, and being on the opposite side of the world from Cleantech Chemistry blog HQ is not a problem for them. Yesterday (which is today in New Zealand), LanzaTech CEO Jennifer Holmgren spoke to a conference of oil refiners in New Delhi. In her remarks, she announced that the firm has a new joint development agreement with Malaysia's national oil company Petronas. The two firms will work to produce chemicals from carbon dioxide - the first one being acetic acid. LanzaTech already has two facilities that make ethanol from CO. In all cases, the CO or CO2 comes from waste gases. LanzaTech's proprietary microbes ferment the gas into various end products. The Petronas deal will get its CO2 from refinery off gases and natural gas wells. Earlier this year, the venture arm of Petronas contributed to LanzaTech's third round of venture funding. And it seems the two companies have been in cahoots ever since. C&EN profiled LanzaTech this summer. And there is another cleantech firm that aims to make acetic acid - Zeachem. Zeachem is building out its plant that will produce acetic acid - as well as ethanol - from hybrid poplar grown in...

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