The Race For the Next Big Thing in HCV

All spring, biotech watchers have been anxiously awaiting Phase III data for two new drugs to treat Hepatitis C, Vertex Pharmaceutical’s telaprevir and Merck’s boceprevir. Both drugs are expected to be approved next year, ushering in a new era in the treatment of HCV. This week’s cover story takes a look beyond that first wave of new drugs for HCV to assess the pipeline of second-generation compounds. After all, improving cure rates by adding a direct-acting antiviral like telaprevir or boceprevir to the current standard of care (PEG-interferon/ribavirn) will be great, but creating a cocktail of small molecules that work on their own would be even better. As the article notes, everybody wants to be the Gilead Sciences of the HCV market. Gilead has cornered the HIV market with a pill that combines three antivirals in one, and is hoping to unroll a four-in-one pill soon. Only there's a catch: unlike in HIV, where there is a steady stream of new infections each year, the rate of new infections in HCV has slowed considerably. As such, there will be a flood of patients seeking treatment--and ideally be cured of the disease--over the next decade, after which industry observers expect the patient pool to shrink. Industry observers expect to see more licensing and M&A activity in the HCV world as companies with antivirals in the late stages of development seek partners with compounds with complementary activity to their own drugs. "Larger companies cannot afford to wait five to six years for clinical development," says Decision Resources analyst Alexandra Makarova. "Its not even a choice of saving money—either you are late for the bus or not. You have to partner with someobody developing drugs in phase II or late phase I." Some deals have already been made, enabling the first studies of combinations of small molecules in the absence of interferon and ribavirin: -Roche, which has a vested interested in maintaining its leading position in the HCV market, partnered with Pharmasset in 2004 for PSI-6130, a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor that the companies later turned into the prodrug R-7128. Two years later, it snagged InterMune’s ITMN-191, for $60 million upfront and up to $470 million in milestones. The companies will split sales of ITMN-191 down the middle. Roche has already conducted a small clinical trial in New Zealand testing the efficacy of using a combination of R-7128 and ITMN-191 together. -Gilead has had mixed luck in its deal-making: the company entered into a HCV development with Achillion Pharmaceuticals in 2004, but later killed development of GS-9132 after it had unwanted side effects. In 2008, Gilead ended a four-year HCV collaboration with Genelabs....

Read More
Rigged Reactions: Biocatalysis Meets 13C NMR
Jul19

Rigged Reactions: Biocatalysis Meets 13C NMR

When you think of reaction screening, what comes to mind? Most would say LC-MS, the pharma workhorse, which shows changes in molecular polarity, mass, and purity with a single injection. Some reactions provide conversion clues, like evolved light or heat. In rare cases, we can hook up an in-line NMR analysis - proton (1H) usually works best due to its high natural abundance (99.9%). Please welcome a new screening technique: 13C NMR. How can that work, given the low, low natural abundance of ~1.1% Carbon-13? Researchers at UT-Southwestern Medical Center have the answer: rig the system. Jamie Rogers and John MacMillan report in JACS ASAP 13C-labeled versions of several common drug fragments, which they use to screen new biocatalyzed reactions. Biocatalysis = big business for the pharma world. The recent Codexis / Merck partnership for HCV drug boceprevir brought forth an enzyme capable of asymmetric amine oxidation. Directed evolution of an enzyme made sense here, since they knew their target structure, but what if we just want to see if microbes will alter our molecules? Enter the labeled substrates: the researchers remark that they provide an “unbiased approach to biocatalysis discovery.” They’re not looking to accelerate a certain reaction per se, but rather searching for any useful modifications using the 13C “detector” readout. One such labeled substrate, N-(13C)methylindole, shows proof-of-concept with their bacterial library, producing two different products (2-oxindole and 3-hydroxyindole) depending on the amount of oxygen dissolved in the broth. NMR autosamplers make reaction monitoring a snap, and in short order, the scientists show biotransformations of ten more indole substrates. This paper scratches multiple itches for various chem disciplines. Tracking single peaks to test reactions feels spookily close to 31P monitoring of metal-ligand catalysis. Organickers, no strangers to medicinally-relevant indole natural products, now have another stir-and-forget oxidation method. Biochemists will no doubt wish to tinker with each bacterial strain to improve conversion or expand scope. The real question will be how easily we can incorporate 13C labels into aromatic rings and carbon chains, which would greatly increase the overall...

Read More

Haystack 2011 Year-in-Review

Well, 2011 is in the books, and we here at The Haystack felt nostalgic for all the great chemistry coverage over this past year, both here and farther afield. Let’s hit the high points: 1. HCV Takes Off – New treatments for Hepatitis C have really gained momentum. An amazing race has broken out to bring orally available, non-interferon therapies to market. In October, we saw Roche acquire Anadys for setrobuvir, and then watched Pharmasset’s success with PSI-7977 prompt Gilead’s $11 billion November buyout.  And both these deals came hot on the heels of Merck and Vertex each garnering FDA approval for Victrelis and Incivek, respectively, late last spring. 2. Employment Outlook: Mixed – The Haystack brought bad employment tidings a few times in 2011, as Lisa reported. The “patent cliff” faced by blockbuster drugs, combined with relatively sparse pharma pipelines, had companies tightening their belts more than normal. Traffic also increased for Chemjobber Daily Pump Trap updates, which cover current job openings for chemists of all stripes. The highlight, though, might be his Layoff Project.  He collects oral histories from those who’ve lost their jobs over the past few years due to the pervasive recession and (slowly) recovering US economy.. The result is a touching, direct, and sometimes painful collection of stories from scientists trying to reconstruct their careers, enduring salary cuts, moves, and emotional battles just to get back to work. 3. For Cancer, Targeted Therapies – It’s also been quite a year for targeted cancer drugs. A small subset of myeloma patients (those with a rare mutation) gained hope from vemurafenib approval. This molecule, developed initially by Plexxikon and later by Roche / Daiichi Sankyo, represents the first success of fragment-based lead discovery, where a chunk of the core structure is built up into a drug with help from computer screening.From Ariad’s promising  ponatinib P2 data for chronic myeloid leukemia, to Novartis’s Afinitor working in combination with aromasin to combat resistant breast cancer. Lisa became ‘xcited for Xalkori, a protein-driven lung cancer therapeutic from Pfizer. Researchers at Stanford Medical School used GLUT1 inhibitors to starve renal carcinomas of precious glucose, Genentech pushed ahead MEK-P31K inhibitor combinations for resistant tumors, and Incyte’s new drug Jakifi (ruxolitinib), a Janus kinase inhibitor, gave hope to those suffering from the rare blood cancer myelofibrosis. 4. Sirtuins, and “Stuff I Won’t Work With  – Over at In the Pipeline, Derek continued to chase high-profile pharma stories. We wanted to especially mention his Sirtris / GSK coverage (we had touched on this issue in Dec 2010). He kept up with the “sirtuin saga” throughout 2011, from trouble with duplicating life extension in model organisms to the...

Read More

Merck Seals Hepatitis C Pact with Roche

Merck is going bare knuckles in the marketing battle for Hepatitis C patients. Just days after receiving FDA approval to market its protease inhibitor boceprevir, now known as Victrelis, it revealed Roche has signed on to co-promote the drug alongside its pegylated interferon drug Pegasys, a cornerstone of HCV treatment. Competition in the HCV arena is expected to be fierce, as Vertex Pharmaceuticals is expected to get the FDA nod to market its own protease inhibitor for HCV telaprevir, to be marketed as Incivek, no later than Monday. Both the Merck and Vertex drugs will need to be taken in combination with the current standard of care, pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Although the two drugs have never gone head to head in the clinic, telaprevir is widely considered to have a better dosing regimen and a slight safety and efficacy edge over Victrelis. As such, analysts have believed that Merck’s main advantage in the HCV market would be its ability to promote Victrelis alongside its own pegylated interferon PegIntron. Now, it will also have Roche’s sales force out there hawking Victrelis with Pegasys, as well. No financials for the deal were announced, so its hard to say at this point how much Merck is giving up in its quest for a bigger piece of the HCV market. It’s also important to note that this is a non-exclusive pact, so time will tell whether Roche and Vertex establish a similar alliance. The deal also allows Merck and Roche to “explore new combinations of investigational and marketed medicines.” As readers will recall, the ultimate goal is to eliminate the need for interferon and ribavirin, which have harsh side effects, and treat HCV using only a cocktail of pills. Roche and Merck each have promising small molecules against HCV in their pipelines: Merck has vaniprevir, an NS3/4a protease inhibitor in Phase II trials, while Roche has the polymerase inhibitor RG7128, the protease inhibitor RG7227, and the earlier-phase polymerase inhibitor RG7432. Read here for past coverage of the race to get new HCV drugs to...

Read More

Haystack 2010 Year-In-Review

This Friday, we're looking back at 2010's big news in pharma and biotech, both the good and the bad. Check out our picks and be sure to weigh in on what you think we missed. 1. Provenge Approved In April, Dendreon's Provenge became the first approved cancer immunotherapy. Dendreon CEO Mitch Gold called it “the dawn of an entirely new era in medicine.” And while prostate cancer patients are excited for a new treatment option, the approval is perhaps most exciting for its potential to reignite interest in cancer immunotherapy research. There’s a lot of room for improving the approach—Provenge is, after all, expensive and highly individualized. Now that immunotherapy have been proven to work, there’s hope that the lessons learned in both its discovery and clinical development will aid scientists in inventing even better cancer vaccines. 2. Obesity Field Slims The obesity drug race played out in dramatic fashion in 2010, with three biotech companies-Vivus, Arena, and Orexigen, each making their case for its weight-loss medication before FDA. As of this writing, Orexigen's drug Contrave seems to be on the surest footing to approval, but longtime obesity-drug watchers know that caution seems to rule the day at FDA, so nothing is a sure bet. Orexigen's Contrave and Vivus's Qnexa are both combinations of already-approved drugs, whereas Arena's Lorqess is a completely new molecule. When C&EN covered the obesity race in 2009, it seemed that Lorqess (then going by the non-brand-name lorcaserin) had the cleanest safety profile, but Qnexa was best at helping patients lose weight. But FDA's panels didn't always play out the way folks expected. There were safety surprises- notably the worries about tumors that cropped up in rats on high doses of Lorqess, and the extensive questioning about birth defect risks from one of the ingredients in Vivus' Qnexa. The fact that FDA's panel voted favorably for Orexigen's Contrave, a drug that's thought to have some cardiovascular risks, generated discussion because FDA pulled Abbott's Meridia, a diet drug with cardiovascular risks, from the market in October. The dust still hasn't fully settled. Arena and Vivus received Complete Response Letters from FDA for Lorqess and Qnexa. Vivus has submitted additional documentation and a followup FDA meeting on Qnexa is happening in January. Also to come in January is the agency's formal decision on Contrave. And if you're interested in learning about the next wave of obesity drugs coming up in clinical trials, read this story in Nature News. 3. Sanofi & Genzyme: The Neverending Story Speaking of drama, Sanofi’s pursuit of Genzyme has been in the headlines for months now, and promises to stretch well into 2011. The...

Read More