Archive → January, 2011
This post appeared originally at the ScienceBlogs home of Terra Sigillata on 28 January 2007.
It was a very cold morning in North Florida (in the teens/low 20s Fahrenheit) as I walked in to class during my second semester of graduate school. I vaguely recall some concerns about the launch of Challenger that morning because of the cold and I believe it was scrapped once before, this highly-touted launch of America’s first schoolteacher in space.
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John W. Huffman is the retired Clemson University chemist whose non-cannabinoid cannabimimetics synthesized in the 1990s have spawned a legal highs industry in the United States. So-called herbal incense products like K2 Spice are sprayed with some of Huffman’s compounds such as JWH-018 and sold in head shops and convenience stores across the US.
However, many municipalities and 15 states have issued bans on the sales of these products. Nationally, the DEA is currently revising a final order to temporarily place some of Huffman’s compounds on Schedule I of controlled substances. Recreational use of these compounds came on the scene in Germany and across Europe several years ago and are now illegal there. The US military has been particularly aggressive in penalizing soldiers for use of synthetic marijuana products. In fact, Reuters reported yesterday afternoon that seven midshipmen at the US Naval Academy have been expelled for using Spice.
With apologies for the radio silence here, I’m off to perform some professional service for our nation’s medical research agency over the next two-and-a-half days.
In the meantime, let me direct your viewing eyes to a terrific post from this weekend by my chemist/biochemist colleague, biochembelle, at her blog, There and (hopefully) back again. Her post about Fritz Haber follows from a discussion on Twitter and at Nature Chemistry’s Skeptical Chymist blog on an unscientific survey of the “greatest” chemists of all time.
biochembelle has a beautifully illustrated history of Haber and the process that fueled a massive increase in food production while also creating a method for chemical warfare. She considers very seriously how we are to view Haber’s role in the latter respect. In this regard, an excellent comment came in from British expat, Tideliar, on putting ourselves in the mindset of a generation that knew that war was inevitable at some point in their lifetime.
‘belle’s post also taught me what BASF stands for as well.
Once again, you can read biochembelle’s post on Fritz Haber here.
Our old friend, Leigh K Boerner, also has a bit more lighthearted look at Haber-Bosch as well.
…or, “how to artificially inflate your readership.”
Yesterday, I saw tweets about a CBS News online article – or so I thought – about 30 herbal dietary supplements to avoid if one has “heart trouble.” What I found was a photo gallery site that I had to click on 20 times to obtain the information – an adaptation of this paper from Mayo Clinic Rochester and Scottsdale investigators in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology last February.
Most of the herbs listed were there because of their positive or negative interactions with the oral anticoagulant drug, warfarin. This list included typical, top-ranked supplements such as ginkgo, garlic, saw palmetto, green tea, and alfalfa. Granted, each page had a lovely photo of the plant or product and a brief description. The list also included herbs that acted via other mechanisms such as St. John’s wort, which can accelerate the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs (via CYP3A4 induction) and yohimbine, whose alpha-2 receptor antagonistic activity can modify the effects of prescription antihypertensive drugs.
The information actually appears quite valid and, from my knowledge of the literature, appears quite accurate. Of course, it doesn’t include original literature references since the gallery appears intended for a general readership.
But I found it vexing to have to click through 20 pages – also after being misled into clicking the only hyperlink in the frontpage of the photo gallery, CBS News’ “friends” at Health.com (link not provided here on purpose), thinking that it was the source of the “easy guide.”
Or maybe I’m just cranky because I have figured out a way to get you to click on my site here 20 consecutive times.
Tachjian, A., Maria, V., & Jahangir, A. (2010) Use of Herbal Products and Potential Interactions in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 55(6), 515-525. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.07.074
Our beloved C&EN online editor, Rachel Pepling, pointed out to me yesterday an insightful post about David Nichols by University College London chemist, Andrea Sella, at his Solarsaddle’s Blog. You’ll recall that my previous post commented on the Nature commentary by Purdue University distinguished chemist and pharmacologist, David Nichols, as he lamented how some of his synthetic schemes for neuroactive compounds have been adopted by those in the recreational street drug industry.
In his post, “Is David Nichols just a wee bit disingenuous?,” Sella discusses how Nichols did not reveal in the commentary his professional relationship with revered “psychedelic” chemist, Alexander “Sasha” Shulgin. I probably don’t have to tell chemists about Shulgin – and that Shulgin’s 1991 book co-authored with his wife, Ann, entitled, PIKHAL: A Chemical Love Story, is the central holy book of drug users wishing to expand their consciousness and explore their mystic relationship with the world and themselves. (PIKHAL stands for Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved – the Shulgins also wrote another book on tryptamines, TIKHAL.). PIKHAL is part fictionalized autobiography of the couple and part synthesis and personal bioassay descriptions of about 200 psychoactive compounds.
Since we ended last year with a post on legal highs – and who decides which analogs are illegal – we logically begin this year, the International Year of Chemistry, with further discussion of synthetic, psychoactive intoxicants.
Today, Nature published an excellent commentary from Dr. David E. Nichols, entitled, “Legal highs: the darker side of medicinal chemistry.” Nichols, a distinguished chair in pharmacology at Purdue University’s College of Pharmacy, reflects on how he is haunted by the deaths that could be tracked back to unintended human use of compounds he and his group have synthesized in the course of legitimate biomedical research. Other scientists whose work has been used for nefarious purposes are likely to share these feelings, both in neuropharmacology and other areas of biological and physical sciences.
Even in my area of natural products and dietary supplements, several colleagues and I have had our work co-opted by herbal manufacturers to sell their goods, most often in the form of overinterpreting in vitro data to make false claims for human use. The listing of the full citations of our associated papers – or even investigator photographs – on manufacturer web pages to imply that we academic scientists have supported their product claims.
However, the same use of synthetic chemistry publications by chemists skirting federal drug laws is a far more serious issue that Nichols addresses in the Nature commentary. Back in October, we discussed here the views of Nichols on one’s scholarly work in neuropharmacology being adopted by the legal highs industry following a Wall Street Journal article by Jeanne Whalen. In fact, Nichols cites that WSJ article in his Nature commentary where his work was described by a Dutch legal highs entrepreneur:
He (David Llewellyn) and his chief chemist get ideas for new drugs by scanning scientific literature. They pay particularly close attention to new papers published by scholars known for researching mind-altering, psychoactive substances.
David Nichols, a pharmacologist at Purdue University, has been especially valuable, Mr. Llewellyn says. Through his work studying brain receptors, Dr. Nichols has developed a range of psychoactive substances. His papers give a full description of the drugs he’s using, including their chemical makeup. This provides Llewellyn and others with a roadmap for making the drugs.