Category → portable equipment
Many art historians have eyed Three Maries At The Tomb and agreed that it’s a Van Eyck. What’s debated is whether Jan painted the artwork or whether it was his older brother Hubert. Or more likely, whether the painting was a sibling collaboration.
For example, the brothers both worked on the famous Ghent Altarpiece: An inscription on the back says it was started by Hubert and finished by Jan, six years after Hubert’s death.
However, art historians debate which brother had a greater influence on the paintings in the Ghent Altarpiece. Did Jan humbly follow his older brother’s stylistic lead or did Jan turn the artwork into a masterpiece with his own artistic flair? Continue reading →
Around 1889, Gertrude Käsebier, a 37-year-old, unhappily married mother of three, decided to go to art school.
A decade later, around 1900, Käsebier’s photo studio in New York City was so successful that her platinum print portraits were “the thing to have,” in turn-of-the-century socialite circles, says Tram M. Vo, an independent conservator who has been collaborating with Dusan Stulik at the Getty Conservation Institute.
“At the time, photographers charged about $12 for 12 prints,” Vo says. “Käsebier charged people $25 just to sit for a photograph and $5 for a single print.”
There’s not a lot known about Käsebier’s techniques in the dark room because she didn’t leave many notes behind. So Vo is trying to learn about her methods using an analytical technique called X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Conservation scientists use XRF to get a list of the chemical elements present in an artwork using X-rays—all without touching or destroying the artwork.
In particular, Vo wants to learn more about the so-called sepia look in many of Käsebier’s prints. Sepia is the word used to describe when black and white photographs have a brownish tint that gives the shots a warm feeling.
In today’s digital world, giving a photo a sepia look is just a Photoshop click away. But when Käsebier wanted to give her platinum prints the sepia look she had to use dark room chemistry.
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I spent most of today learning about what museum scientists and conservators are doing to keep contemporary art in tip-top shape. (This whole week I’m at ICOM-CC, the huge art conservation science conference currently taking place in Lisbon.)
These folks who are developing life-extension treatments for some pretty quirky art and artifacts. I’m talking about gigantic chandeliers made from hundreds of illuminated plastic bags suspended from the ceiling, each bag containing a little electronic toy dog that barks and moves its legs. Gotta love it.
Or they’re working on sculptures made from random objects covered in aluminum paint that are now degrading beneath the metal veneer. Or Nazi typewriters found at bombed Gestapo headquarters. Continue reading →
This week some 120 conservation researchers are facing the tragic hardship that comes from spending a week in Parma, Italy, where there is a conference called “Raman in art and archeology.”
This is not a conference about art made from tasty Japanese noodles. (That’s Ramen, silly!)
But if you caught the gratuitous pun in my headline, then you probably already know that Raman spectroscopy is an analytical technology that helps scientists study the vibrations and rotations that occur within molecules. Conservation scientists get giddy about Raman for a bunch or reasons, Peter Vandenabeele, an organizer of the conference, told me:
First: Raman is not picky about art. Which is to say that the technique can be used to study the chemical make-up of jewelry, oil paintings, Egyptian burial masks, glass, Mayan wall paintings… you get the picture.
Second: Portable Raman spectroscopy equipment is non-invasive, so it doesn’t hurt artwork. Scientists head to a museum, and shine low frequency laser light at a painting or sculpture which has mysterious molecular components that they want to know more about—such as a pigment that gives artwork brilliant color, or a pigment that is fading with time.
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In the late 1940s and early 50s, nearly 1000 manuscripts were found in caves along the banks of the Dead Sea at a site called Khirbet Qumran. The so-called Dead Sea Scroll texts, which include the oldest known versions of the Hebrew Bible as well as other important ancient writings, have long provided fodder for all sorts of academic research and debate.
One serious point of contention is whether the manuscripts were all written at Khirbet Qumran, or whether the caves were simply a library–a grotto-like repository.
Figuring out an answer to this question with science but without harming the precious documents is a tall order, but one that may be filled using a new technique developed by a team at the Technical University in Berlin, led by Ioanna Mantouvalou.
It turns out that the Dead Sea Scroll documents were penned on a real potpourri of materials, including copper, papyrus (a plant-based paper) and parchment (animal skin). Mantouvalou and her colleagues decided to focus on the provenance of the parchment-based writings because these form the majority of the Dead Sea Scroll collection.
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In the last year of Vincent van Gogh’s life, as his mental illness escalated and before his suicide in 1890, the Dutch impressionist painter voluntarily committed himself in to two French hospitals.
The isolation didn’t thwart van Gogh’s productivity–he painted some 200 paintings during the 15 months he spent in treatment. Nor did the isolation prevent him from experimenting with trendy new pigments bequeathed by the industrial revolution, such as chrome yellow, which he used to paint his famous sunflower series. This pigment fell out of favor by the 1950s when its lead and chromate make-up was found to be toxic.
Unfortunately, chrome yellow and other then-trendy pigments degrade if they are exposed to light. For example, the degradation turns the bright yellow pigment into a rather sad looking green color. Earlier this year Koen Janssens, at the University of Antwerp, in Belgium, explained the chemistry behind this degradation, by using X-ray spectroscopy to show that when the chromium in the yellow paint was subjected to too much light, it went from a hexavalent state to a trivalent state. Many media outlets reported on the discovery, including C&EN and Newscientist.
Now Janssens has turned his attention to the so-called red lake pigments that van Gogh used in paintings during the 15 months of his life. Janssens recruited the help of MOLAB, a group of roaming scientists who travel around Europe with high tech, portable equipment. Their gear can help him study light degradation of the valuable art without harming it.
Last week, the MOLAB team, aka CHARISMA, drove 1500km from Perugia, Italy, to the Kröller-Müller Museum, in Otterlo, in the Netherlands. The Kröller-Müller has 22 paintings from van Gogh’s last months of life, and with the help of the mobile lab, the researchers can study the red pigment degradation without moving or harming the artwork.
Hopefully the new research will clarify the chemistry of the paint breakdown so that further degradation of van Gogh’s work can be avoided.
I can’t help thinking about the tragic irony of it all… that as van Gogh’s mental health was rapidly deteriorating, he was expressing himself using paint that was itself unstable.
When cultural heritage scientists go on the road, one of the most useful tools they take with them is something developed for Mars exploration: a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The Art Institute of Chicago’s Francesca Casadio wrote a snappy little ode to the machine, which NPR awesomely calls a “science gun.”
When researchers point the admittedly weapon-like device at a painting or a sculpture, they are able to find out which elements are present in the artwork. So for example, Casadio has used the machine to discover that about 1000 years ago, Chinese artists used a red, mercury-based paint called vermillion to decorate the lips of a female sculpture.
She also discovered that sometime in the 1800s an over-enthusiastic restorer used a zinc-based paint to give the sculpture “a new coat of lipstick,” Casadio told NPR. Hear the whole NPR piece here.
I heart the space connection. Astrochemists needed rugged and portable equipment to analyze the elemental make-up of the Martian landscape. The X-ray device also doesn’t harm whatever it is analyzing because researchers don’t need to remove a piece of the sample to do the analysis.
Instead, X-rays are directed on to the artwork or Martian rock and they either get scattered or absorbed in a way that reveals which elements are in the sample.
All these characteristics fit the bill for cultural heritage science. These researchers need sturdy, portable, non-invasive devices to study priceless art in caves, at archeological sites or even at a private collector’s home. And that’s why Casadio calls X-ray fluorescence spectrometers “the most exciting high-tech tools you’ve never heard of.”
During most of my visits to Italy, I end up with neck cramps after craning my head backward for hours to look at faraway ceiling frescoes in churches across the country. But last week, I found myself peering directly into the eyes of fresco angels at the top of the Capella Maggiore in Florence’s famous Santa Croce Basilica.
These frescoes have been under restoration since 2005 and for the next few months small groups of people can climb the scaffolding to view the artwork up close. The frescoes were painted in the 1380s by Agnolo Gaddi, a disciple of Giotto, one of the architects of the Italian Renaissance.
I climbed up the scaffolding with Mariarosa Lanfranchi, a restorer from the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Italy’s foremost restoration laboratory. She’s been leading the fresco restoration project.
One of the first questions she asked me is whether I suffer from vertigo, because we would be going up about 30 meters to reach the very top of the cathedral. Assured that I wouldn’t suffer a panic attack, she began her awesome tour by telling me that the last restoration of part of the church’s frescoes was in the 1930 or 40s.
Since then, air pollution has coated the art with a layer of brownish grime. Meanwhile, construction around the city has covered the artwork with little chunks of gypsum dust. The frescoes are porous, and with the city’s high humidity, the gypsum penetrated into the frescoes, giving the artwork a rather speckled look, Lanfranchi explained.
To remove the grime and gypsum, the restorers used the “Florentine method,” a combination treatment of ammonium carbonate, followed by a treatment of barium hydroxide, Lanfranchi said. The first step of adding the ammonium carbonate dissolves the unwelcome dust and gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) so that both can be removed from the surface and inside the fresco’s pores.
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One major motivation was time: Industrial wall paint dries in a matter of hours, while oil paint can take months. Like the rest of us, these artists had moments of procrastination. Being able to produce work just days before the opening of a new exhibit was certainly a perk, says Francesca Casadio, an organizer of the conference From Can To Canvas, and the director of conservation science at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Artists had other motivations for using Ripolin, such as shocking the stodgy traditional art world by using an industrial product, Casadio says. Some motivations were probably purely aesthetic: Industrial paint was glossier than matte oil paint. And in addition, artists could achieve unusual textures on artwork surfaces with the quick drying paint.
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